Travelling wave (T-Wave™)
Travelling wave (T-Wave™) ion guides enable the precise manipulation of ions in a mass spectrometer in order to enhance sensitivity, selectivity, and analytical speed.
Extremely high transmission of ions provides unparalleled MS sensitivity
The performance of scanning quadrupoles is significantly improved
Tandem quadrupole MS/MS data can be acquired extremely rapidly
Ions can be rapidly separated based on their mobilities
Travelling Wave - Precise manipulation of ions in MS
A T-Wave device consists of a sequence of ring-shaped electrodes.The ring electrodes are supported on printed circuit boards that deliver both RF and DC voltages. Adjacent rings have opposite phases of Radio Frequency (RF) voltage applied to them, which radially confine the ions within the device while allowing them to pass unhindered along the axis.
Total control of ion transmission
A Direct Current (DC) voltage can be applied to a pair of adjacent rings, to produce a potential barrier that the ions cannot cross.As the DC potential is stepped to an adjacent set of rings the ion barrier moves forward, causing any ions in front of it to be propelled forwards. Stepping the ion barrier sequentially along the rings of the device to the other creates a travelling wave that drives the ions through the device.
T-Wave collision Cell
In a conventional tandem mass spectrometer rapid acquisition of MS/MS data leads to loss in sensitivity and crosstalk. Using a T-Wave collision cell, the sensitivity is maintained, even at high data acquisition rates.Since its inception as an advanced collision cell for tandem mass spectrometry, T-Wave Technology has been used in a number of creative and innovative ways to enhance the performance and functionality of Waters mass spectrometers, sometimes adding unique capabilities not possible by other means.
A unique, revolutionary off-axis ion source technology that delivers class leading UPLC/MS/MS sensitivity
Patented ion transfer device to maximise sensitivity
Up to 25x increase in signal
Actively removes neutrals to reduce contamination
Revolutionary off-axis design maximises method robustness with complex matrices
Compatible with UPLC and multi-mode MS acquisition speeds
Based on stacked ring ion guide technology, the StepWave is an elegant device designed to maximise ion transmission from the source to the mass analyser. Through its unique design, the device also allows for the active removal of neutral contaminants, providing an enhancement to overall signal to noise. The patented design enables the efficient capture of the diffuse ion cloud entering the first stage, which is then focused into the upper ion guide for transfer to the mass analyser.
StepWave's unique design actively extracts the ion beam into the upper stage, and passes the high gas flow, excess solvent and neutral species to the exhaust. This protects the critical upper ion guide and the subsequent aperture from the direct line of sight of contaminants, ensuring that methods remain robust for longer, even with complex matrices.
Conventional tandem quadrupole mass spectrometers are primarily used only in MRM mode. With ScanWave technology, you can put TQ versatility to real, everyday use.
Enhanced sensitivity and spectral quality for product ion MS/MS
Confirmatory spectra at the LLOQ
Simplify and accelerate UPLC/MRM method development by tracking your analyte relative to interferences
Monitor your samples for unexpected impurities, metabolites and degradants
ScanWave - Better spectral data from tandem quadrupole MS
Conventional tandem quadrupole MS instruments are sensitive enough when used to monitor targeted compounds in MRM mode, but they are significantly less sensitive when used to acquire data in spectral mode.
ScanWave technology allows ions within the collision cell to be accumulated and separated according to their mass-to-charge ratio (m/z). Synchronizing these ions with the scanning of the second quadrupole significantly enhances product ion spectra, enabling you to more easily confirm the identities and structures of your analytes of interest.
Product ion confirmation scan (PICS)
ScanWave-enhanced product ion scans are triggered from the detection of a target analyte in MRM mode. This enhanced spectrum may be used as confirmatory data to add evidence that the MRM trace is the true target compound. The PICS spectrum can be library matched against a reference from database, enabling a routine method of checking.
The speed of PICS mode means that it is UPLC compatible, maintains the integrity of the MRM chromatographic trace for quantitative measurements, and can be employed even at the LLOQ.
RADAR is a simple acquisition mode that acquires both MRM and full scan MS simultaneously, a unique capability that can both simplfy and accelerate development of robust methods.
Track interferences during method development, to optimise chromatography
Capture positive and negative ion data to monitor matrix interferences during a routine quantitative analysis
Capture a full picture of the sample, not just the target analyte, by enabling detection of impurities, degradants or metabolites
RADAR is a standard feature of all Xevo tandem quadrupole MS systems.
For the highest selectivity, specificity and experimental versatility
Conventional mass spectrometers separate on the basis of m/z. Triwave enables you to also separate on the basis of size and shape, dramatically enhancing sample definition.
Differentiate components that cannot be separated by UPLC or mass alone e.g. isomers, conformers
See more analytes in the absence of interferences, and more confidently identify them Rapidly derive information on conformation to complement X-ray, NMR or EM techniques
Conduct more comprehensive structural characterization by combining IMS with single or multiple stages of fragmentation
Triwave technology which enables ion mobility separations in the SYNAPT G2-S family of MS systems, comprises three travelling wave devices which are used to manipulate (trap, accumulate, release, separate and fragment) ions in a very precise, rapid and efficient manner.The separation of molecules by ion mobility in the IMS T-Wave significantly extends the power of high resolution MS/MS analysis, increasing the extent and confidence with which a scientist can profile complex mixtures and complex molecules.
T-Wave IMS benefits - separation and peak capacity
There are a number of benefits to using T-Wave ion mobility that have been reported in over 200 peer reviewed papers.
Orthogonal separation power - IMS resolution sufficient to separate; ions not amenable to m/z separation, isomers, conformers , ions of different molecular class or charge-state.
Increased peak capacity - providing significant gains in selectivity (analytical peak capacity) and specificity (confidence in results), when compared to the use of m/z separation alone.
T-Wave IMS benefits - confirmation and structural characterisation
Confirmation - T-Wave IMS provides a unique method to enhance the characterisation of molecular structure through the determination of collision cross section values (CCS). The conformational measurements generated for peptides and small molecules have been shown to complement traditional structural analysis techniques.
Structural characterisation - Triwave provides a range of options to increase information from fragmentation experiments by combining IMS with CID (one or two stages) or ETD. This provides more comprehensive characterisation of modified peptides, lipids, small molecules, carbohydrates and polymers.
Principles of T-Wave IMS separation
T-Wave IMS utilizes non-uniform, moving electric fields / voltage pulses to push ions through a neutral buffer gas. As ions are driven, they interact/collide with the neutral buffer gas which slows them down, causing ions of different size, shape, charge and mass to transit at different rates.Species with high mobility (more compact) surf more on the wave front and are overtaken by the wave less often than those species of low mobility (more extended), hence mobility-based separation occurs.
T-Wave IMS in practice
Ions arriving in the Triwave device are accumulated in the TRAP T-Wave and then released into the IMS T-Wave where mobility dependent separation occurs. The IM separated packets of ions are transferred to the oa-Tof analyzer by the TRANSFER T-Wave.The process is continually repeated in the tens of milliseconds time-frame with very high duty cycle, which means that benefits of IMS can be realized together with UPLC separations and Tof mass analysis without compromising the sensitivity or speed of analysis.
Easily More Sensitive, Just Turn the Key
With an ionKey/MS System, Waters transforms what your lab can do. By integrating the UPLC separation into the source of the mass spectrometer ionKey/MS gives you:
Simplified user experience
The power to perform multiple analyses on limited sample volumes
The power to analyze smaller sample sizes
Reduced solvent consumption
ionKey/MS integrates the ACQUITY UPLC M-Class System with the industry-leading Xevo TQ-S mass spectrometer, which enables the lowest detection limits to be achieved for the most challenging analyses.Designed for the most demanding quantitative applications, Waters mass spectrometers provide unprecedented levels of sensitivity and the ultimate in quantitative performance.ionKey/MS provides the same 2.1-mm I.D. UPLC chromatographic performance you know in a 150-µm I.D. channel packed with 1.7-µm particles, providing tremendous improvements in sensitivity.
Simplified User Experience
ionKey/MS is enabled by the innovative iKey™ which replaces traditional fittings and columns and simplifies the user experience.The “Plug and Play” design eliminates user-made connections and the associated operator variability providing a superior level of confidence and enables any scientist to obtain high quality data.The iKey contains the fluidic connections, electronics, ESI interface, heater, e-cord™, and the chemistry to perform UPLC separations in the source of Waters mass spectrometers. It makes the most sensitive MS instrument on the market accessible to any user.
Get More with Less Sample
ionKey/MS gives you the power to analyze smaller samples and do more when you have limited samples.
Save time and money by reducing the amount of sample to be prepared and analyzed
Minimize costly standards
Reduce the need for matrix matched standards by diluting sample matrix
Improve MS uptime and robustness by reducing sample and solvent load
When you have limited samples, find more and gain confidence by:
* Performing more analyses per sample.
* Optimize for different analytes
* Reduce variation in data by eliminating the need to pool samples
Reduced solvent consumption
ionKey/MS significantly reduces the amount of solvent consumed compared to 2.1-mm I.D. scale analyses, which give you lower solvent costs, reduced storage and disposal costs, and more sustainable workflow for the environment.